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Existing Quality Standard for Drinking Water

Date:2012-03-05 14:40:10

The National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) is the legal and compulsory standard, applicable for public water supply system. NPDWRs restrains the concentration of pollutants harmful to public health, already found or occurred in public water supply system, so as to protect the drinking water quality.
National Primary Drinking Water Regulations:
The pollutants are divided into inorganic substance, organic substance, radionuclide and microorganism.
 

Pollutant

MCLG① (mg/L)④

MCL②③
(mg/L)④

Potential Impact after Intake from Water

Source of Pollutant

 Inorganic substance


Antimony

0.006

0.006

Increase blood cholesterol and decrease glucose content in blood.

Discharge from refineries or fire retardant, electron, pottery and welding flux plants


Arsenic (As)

No Regulation ⑤

0.05


Skin injury, blood circulation disease and increase of carcinogenic risk.


Semiconductor manufacturers, refineries, wood preservative, animal feed additive, herbicide and other industrial discharge, mineral corrosion

Asbestos (>10% Fiber)


7×10 7 Fiber/L


7×10 7 Fiber/L7


Increase the risk of benign intestinal polyp.


Asbestos in water pipelines, cement damage and mineral corrosion


Barium

2

2


Increase blood pressure.


Well drilling discharge, discharge of metal smelting plants and mineral corrosion


Beryllium

0.004

0.004


Intestinal injury


Discharge from metal smelting plants, coking plants, electronics, airline and national defence industry


Cadmium

0.005

0.005


Renal injury


Galvanized pipeline corrosion, natural mineral corrosion, discharge from metal smelting plants, water escape from waste batteries and oil paints


Chromium

0.1

0.1


Intake of chromium higher than MCL for several years causes allergic dermatitis.


Discharge from steelworks and pulp mills and natural mineral corrosion


Copper

1.3


Action Concentration 1.3TT6


Short-time intake causes stomach and intestine ache, long-time intake causes liver or renal injury, and a patient suffering from Kayser’s disease shall consult personal doctor when drinking water with copper concentration bigger than the action one.


Household pipeline system corrosion, natural mineral corrosion and leaching of wood preservative


Cyanide

0.2

0.2


Nervous system injury and thyroid disease


Discharge from steel plants, fabricators, plastic plants and chemical fertilizer plants


Fluoride

4.0

4.0


Skeleton disease (ache and fragile), dental plaque disease for children


Add fluorine to water for tooth protection; natural mineral corrosion and discharge from chemical fertilizer plants and aluminum manufacturers


Lead

0


Action Concentration 0.015 TT6


Infants and children: physical or metal retardation; Adults: kidney disease and high pressure


Household pipeline corrosion and natural mineral corrosion


Inorganic Mercury

0.002

0.002


Renal injury


Natural mineral corrosion, discharge from smelting plants and other factories, outflow from waste residue landfill and farmland


Nitrate (N)

10

10


“Blue Infant Syndrome” (The infant of less than 6 months fails to be treated timely after being impacted); Symptom: Blue body and short of breath.


Spill of chemical fertilizers, leakage of digestion tanks or sewage and natural mineral corrosion


Nitrate (N)

1

1

“Blue Infant Syndrome” (The infant of less than 6 months fails to be treated timely after being impacted); Symptom: Blue body and short of breath.

Spill of chemical fertilizers, leakage of digestion tanks or sewage and natural mineral corrosion


Selenium

0.05

0.05


Epilation, loss of finger nail, numb with finger nail or toe and blood circulation problem 

Discharge from refineries, natural mineral corrosion and discharge from mine fields

Thallium

0.0005

0.0002

Epilation, change of blood content and impact on kidney, intestine or liver

Dissolving out from ore sand treatment fields and discharge from electronic, glass and pharmaceutical factories 

Organic Substance


Acrylamide

0

TT7


Nervous system and blood diseases and increase carcinogenic risk


Add into water during the treatment of sludge or waste water


Alachlor

0

0.002

Diseases with eyes, liver, kidney and spleen, anemia and increase of carcinogenic risk

Outflow of farmland herbicide

Atrazine

0.003

0.003

Cardiovascular system disease and reproduction difficulty

Outflow of farmland herbicide

Benzene

0

0.005

Anemia, thrombocytopenia and increase of carcinogenic risk

plant discharge, gas storage tanks and leaching of backfilled waste residue 

Benzpyrene

0

0.0002

Reproduction difficulty and increase of carcinogenic risk

Leaching of water storage tanks and pipelines

Carbofuran

0.04

0.04

Diseases with blood and nerve system and reproduction difficulty

Leaching of fumigant for rice and alfalfa

Carbon tetrachloride

0

0.005

Liver disease and increase of carcinogenic risk

Discharge from chemical plants and other enterprises

Chlordan

0

0.002

Liver disease and increase of carcinogenic risk

Residue of forbidden termite killer

Chlorobenzene

0.1

0.1

Diseases with liver and kidney

Discharge from chemical plants and insecticide plants

2, 4-Drop

0.07

0.07

Diseases with kidney, liver and adrenal gland

Outflow of farmland herbicide

Dalapon

0.2

0.2

Micro change to kidney

Outflow of road herbicide

1, 2 - dibromo - 3 - chloropropane

0

0.0002

Reproduction difficulty and increase of carcinogenic risk

Outflow or dissolving out of fumigant for soybean, cotton, pineapple and orchard soil

1,2-dichlorobenzene

0.6

0.6

Diseases with liver, kidney or circulation system

Discharge from chemical plants

Paradichorobenzene

0.075

0.075

Anemia, injury of liver, kidney or spleen and blood change

Discharge from chemical plants

1, 2- dichloroethane

0

0.005

Increase of carcinogenic risk

Discharge from chemical plants

1, 1- dichloroethylene

0.007

0.007

Liver disease

Discharge from chemical plants

Cis-1,2-dichloroethene

0.07

0.07

Liver disease

Discharge from chemical plants

Trans 1,2- dichloroethylene

0.1

0.1

 

Discharge from chemical plants

Dichloromethane

0

0.005

Liver disease and increase of carcinogenic disease

Discharge from chemical plants and pharmaceutical plants

1, 2- propylene dichloride

0

0.005

Increase of carcinogenic disease

Discharge from chemical plants

Diethyl base adipic acid

0.4

0.4

General toxicity or reproduction difficulty

Dissolving out of PVC pipeline systems and discharge from chemical plants

Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate

0

0.006

Reproduction difficulty, liver disease, and increase of carcinogenic disease

Discharge from rubber plants and chemical plants

Dinoseb

0.007

0.007

Reproduction difficulty

Outflow of soybean and vegetable herbicide

Dioxin (2, 3, 7, 8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin)

0

0.00000003

Reproduction difficulty and increase of carcinogenic disease

Incineration spread of rubbish or other materials, discharge from chemical plants

Reglox

0.02

0.02

Cataract

Outflow of herbicide

Endothall

0.1

0.1

Diseases with stomach and intestines

Outflow of herbicide

Endrin

0.002

0.002

Hurt nerve system

Residue of forbidden insecticide

Fumigation Loop

0

TT7

Stomach disease, reproduction difficulty and increase of carcinogenic risk

Discharge from chemical plants or add into in the process of water treatment

Ethylbenzene

0.7

0.7

Diseases with liver and kidney

Discharge from refineries

Ethylene dibromide

0

0.00005

Stomach disease and reproduction difficulty

Discharge from refineries

Glyphosate

0.7

0.7

Stomach disease and reproduction difficulty

Outflow of herbicide

Heptachior

0

0.0004

Liver injury and increase of carcinogenic disease

Residue of forbidden termite killer

Heptachior epoxide

0

0.0002

Liver injury, reproduction difficulty and increase of carcinogenic risk

Heptachior degradation

Hexachlorobenzene

0

0.001

Diseases with liver and kidney and increase of carcinogenic disease

Discharge from metallurgic plants and insecticide plants

Hexoxide cyclopentadiene

0.05

0.05

Diseases with kidney and stomach

Discharge from chemical plants

Lindane

0.0002

0.0002

Diseases with kidney and liver

Outflow or dissolving out of insecticide used by livestock, wood and gardens

Methoxy DDT

0.04

0.04

Reproduction difficulty

Outflow or dissolving out of insecticide used by fruits, vegetables, alfalfa and poultry


Oxamyl

0.2

0.2

Light impact on nerve system

Outflow of insecticide used by apples, potatoes and tomatoes

PCB

0

0.0005

Skin change, thymus disease, weakened immunity, reproduction of nerve system difficulty and increase of carcinogenic risk

Dissolving out of backfilled waste residue and discharge of waste chemical medicine

PCP

0

0.001

Diseases with liver and kidney and increase of carcinogenic risk

Discharge from wood preservation plants

Picloram

0.5

0.5


Liver disease

Outflow of herbicide

Simazine

0.004

0.004

Blood disease

Outflow of herbicide

Styrene

0.1

0.1

Diseases with liver, kidney and blood circulation

Discharge from rubber or plastic plants and dissolving out of backfilled soil

Carbon dichloride

0

0.005

Liver disease

Outflow from PVC pipe and discharge from factories and dry cleaning places

Toluene

1

1

Diseases with nerve system, kidney and liver

Discharge from refineries

TTHMs

No Regulation ⑤

0.1

Diseases with liver, kidney and nerve center and increase of carcinogenic risk

Byproduct of drinking water sterilization

Toxaphene

0

0.003

Diseases with kidney, liver and thyroid

Outflow or dissolving out of insecticide of cotton and livestock

2, 4, 5- fenoprop

0.05

0.05

Liver disease

Residue of forbidden herbicide

1, 2, 4- trichlorobenzene

0.07

0.07

Change of adrenal gland

Discharge from textile mills

1, 1, 1- methyl chloroform

0.2

0.2

Diseases with liver, nerve system and blood system

Discharge from metal grease removal areas or other plants

1, 1, 2- methyl chloroform

0.003

0.005

Diseases with liver, kidney and immune system

Discharge from chemical plants

Trichloro ethylene

0

0.005

Liver disease and increase of carcinogenic risk

Discharge from refineries

Chloroethylene

0

0.002


Increase of carcinogenic risk

Dissolving out from PVC pipelines and discharge from plastic plants

Dimethylbenzene (Con)

10

10

Nerve system injury

Discharge from petroleum plants and chemical plants

Nuclein

Particle and photon

No regulation ⑤

4 Millirem/Year

Increase of carcinogenic risk

Natural and man-made mineral disintegration

Con- α activity

No regulation⑤

15 Micromicrocurie/L

Increase of carcinogenic risk

Etching of natural mineral

Radium 226, radium 228

regulation ⑤

5 Micromicrocurie/L

Increase of carcinogenic risk


Etching of natural mineral

Microorganism

Giardia

0

TT8

Giardia disease and stomach disease

Human and animal waste

Total number of heterotrophic bacterium

No regulation

TT8

Harmless to health and serve as an indicator to approve water treatment efficiency and control microorganism

No regulation

Legionella

0

TT8

Legionella disease and pneumonia

Commonly found in water or heating system

Co- colon bacillus (including fecal and  ehrlich coliform)

0

5.0%- 9

Used to indicate the existence of other potential harmful bacteria.

Human and animal waste

Turbidity

No regulation

TT8

Harmless to humans but impact sterilization and provide places for bacteria growth; used to indicate the existence of microorganism

Soil outflow along with water

Virus

0

TT8

Stomach disease

Human and animal waste

National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations:
The National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs) is non-obligatory rules and is used to control the concentration of pollutants that have impact on hairdressing (color change of skin or teeth) or senses (such as smell, taste and color).
The American Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends the secondary regulations to water systems but does not force its execution, however, all states may choose some regulations thereof as compulsory standards. 
Notes:
① Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG)- Concentration of water pollutants that has no impact or expected harmful influence on human health. It regulates the safety limits and MCLGs serve as non-obligatory public health objective.
② Maximum Concentration of Pollutants refers to the permitted maximum concentration of the pollutants in water supplied to users, MCLGs refers to compulsory standard and MCLG refers to safety limits to ensure the water will not form obvious risk for the general public when the pollution concentration is slightly higher than MCL limits.
③ TT Treatment Technology- The compulsory step or technological level that the public water supply system must abide by to ensure the control over pollutants.
④ Except for special notes, generally the measuring unit is mg/L.
⑤ Because the MCLGs indicator was not recognized until the Modification to the Law of Safe Drinking Water 1986 was passed, this pollutant has not MCLGs value.
⑥ The water treatment technology regulates that as for the tap running water sampled from the lead, lead welded or copper pipe, if its copper action concentration and lead action concentration are 10% higher than 1.3mg/L and 0.015mg/L respectively, the water need treatment.
⑦ If one water supply system adopts acrylamide and fumigation loop (1- Chlorine-2, 3 epoxypropane), it must present the state government with written certificate (in the form of the certificate issued by the third party or the manufacturer) to prove that the using dosage and individual concentration do not exceed the following regulations:
Acrylamide= 0.05%, Dosage 1mg/L (or Equal Amount)
Fumigation Loop= 0.01%, Dosage 20mg/L (or Equal Amount)
⑧ Where the surface water treatment regulations require adopting the water supply system of surface water or underground water that is directly influenced by the surface water, (1) water sterilization shall be conducted and (2) the water shall be filtered to meet the rules of filtration free and to control the concentration of pollutants as follows:
Giardia: Killing or Inactivation Rate of 99.9%
Virus: Killing or Inactivation Rate of 99.99%
There is no limiting value for legionella, because EPA believes that it will be under control as long as giardia and virus are eliminated.
Turbidity: The turbidity shall not exceed 5NTU at any time; filterable water supply system is adopted to ensure the turbidity no higher than NTU (Regular filtration or direct filtration makes the turbidity no higher than 0.5NTU) and for two consecutive months, the qualification rate of water samples collected every day shall be at least higher than 95%.
HPC per milliliter shall not exceed 500 bacteria population.
⑨ The com-colon bacillus positive water samples of each month shall not exceed 5%. For the water system whose sample number for monthly com-colon bacillus test is less than 40, the com-colon bacillus positive water sample shall not exceed 1. For the water sample containing com-colon bacillus, a test of fecal coliform shall be conducted, which is not allowed to exist.
⑩ The existence of fecal and ehrlich coliforms indicates that the water has been polluted by human or animal waste whose microorganism may cause diarrhea, spasm, nausea, headache or other symptoms.
 
 

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fax:+86-0531-88019920/61317515
Contacts:Mr. Niu +86-13969059798

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